During the recent drought in the Kurow area, shallow rooting grasses. clovers and weeds died, pastures were overgrazed and massive wind erosion problems occurred. I have overdrilled more than 100 hectares of lucerne with various drought tolerant grasses, including wheatgrass, phalaris, cocksfoot, prairie grass and tall fescue. My grazing management has changed and I am introducing earthworms into the paddocks. Last spring I started fencing and planting the sunny faces with shrubs and eventually I intend to space plant the shady faces with a multi-use, high value timber species. My revegetation plan meets the aims of the Resource Conservation Committee which is to promote a more sustainable land use system, with the capacity to produce a diversity of products, and make the beautiful Haka Valley a better place for animals and people to live, now and in the future. This form of integrated farming and “working with nature” seems to lead the way to a more sustainable farming system which not only protects the land for today but nourishes it for generations to come. Keywords: conservation, wind erosion, dryland grasses, browse shrubs.
In a series of four experiments, the w-seeding ability and shoot and root characteristics of dryland white clover populations (Trifolium repens L.), and the effect of selection for root characteristics within white clover were examined. There was little evidence that dryland populations were better at re-seeding than Huia, but dryland populations were more taprooted than populations collected from moister environments. Root morphologies of dryland populations were similar to that of Huia but were smaller leaved, although not as small leaved as Tahora. Evidence that selection for more taprooted, smaller-leaved types of white clover would be successful is also presented. Keywords: root type, drought, re-seeding, plant breeding, survival
The variation and individuality of Central Otago result from a unique combination of climate and topography. The range and basin structures produce New Zealand’s nearest approach to a “Continental” Climate, and on a yearly basis Central Otago can be one of the driest as well as one of the hottest and coldest areas in the country. There are two unique features. The first a dry central core wth horticulture as a dominant activity. The second is a high pastoral plateau, the East Otago Plateau, from 400 to 900 metres altitude, marking the Eastern boundary of Central Otago. The agricultural pattern is traditional but it is suggested there is scope for other non traditional crops. Of all the physical elements surveyed in the past, e.g. rock or soil type, slope or vegetation, there is frequently no reference to climate. However, the resource value of any locality draws from its particular local climate or “topoclimate”. Climate when regarded as such requires a new approach to data gathering. Research in Central Otago aims to increase our knowledge of topoclimate on the valley floors and locate special microclimates suitable for possible and existing horticultural crops and at the same time remove some of the hazards. Keywords: topoclimate
Lotus corniculatus introductions and cultivars from Europe, the Mediterranean and North and South America were evaluated for herbage production and morphological characteristics at six sites in the South Island tussock country. The sites constitute a sequence of increasing altitude, soil acidity, infertility, rainfall and cold temperatures. In the dry intermontane basins of Central Otago and the McKenzie Country, material from Portugal, Yugoslavia, Italy and France performed best, with high yields, a wide seasonal spread of production and desirable growth habit. In contrast, on the cold and infertile soils of upland Otago, material from Holland, Sweden, Canada and Russia proved superior by concentrating growth into summer. South American material had some cool season activity, but an erect growth habit and susceptibility to frosting reduced the suitability of this material. The relative merits of Lotus corniculatus compared with red, white and alsike clover, lucerne and Lotus pedunculatus are discussed. Superior plants have been isolated and will be polycrossed to produce lines for progeny testing. Experimental cultivars will be produced by bulking these superior lines for establishment/management studies and on-farm trials. A co-operative effort between research organisations and farmers is envisaged. Keywords: Introductions, adaptation, selection, breeding programme.
Cardrona Valley is 40 km long, running in a north/east, south/west direction. It is 30,000 hectares in area, with a native plant cover of silver tussock and matagouri, running into blue tussock and snow grass as you ascend the valley sides. Annual rainfall averages 600 mm on the valley floor, and altitude increases from 300 metres at the north/east end to 1100 metres at the south/west. The mountain peaks along the valley sides reach an altitude of 1900 metres. Cardrona is a valley that normally has long, hot, dry summers and in winter the snow line is down to 900 metres. Several snow falls cover the whole valley, but remains only a few days on the valley floor. Cardrona is a pleasant valley, sheltered from the prevailing winds by its aspect. It has no geographical features that are unique, and nor do the plant species lack cousins throughout Central Otago. Man’s activities have impacted on the valley in many ways over the years and yet it has lost none of its appeal. It is as well clad as it ever was, and we are given the past’s fascinating rich history to build on into the future.
New Zealand, because of its geographic isolation, harbours unique biological qualities. Human occupation inevitably disrupted this natural order. Gradual degradation of these natural qualities can easily go unnoticed and unchecked. The bulk of our nature reserves are on land unsuited to agriculture, whereas the significance and vulnerability of our total natural heritage requires a reserve network representing all land classes. To ensure protection of vital natural areas they must be of viable proportions and segregated from incompatible uses. There are practical and spiritual reasons for nature conservation which offer beneficial options for land use. A wide range of conservation measures is available to the landowner. Keywords: farm tourism, land management, multipurpose, nature conservation, reserves
The Arrow River Irrigation Scheme has been in operation since the early 1930s. Farming systems within the scheme have been predominantly sheep with limited cereal cropping. Irrigation has been used mainly to ensure that sufficient hay is made to feed through the long cool winters. The future of the irrigation scheme is in doubt because of high upgrading costs and a large operating deficit that has accumulated. Water charges have been low for many years. Farmers started diversifying into deer in the early 1990s and a steady expansion has since occurred. Incorporating deer into the farming operation has had a significant impact upon the profitability of the diversified farms. The increased profitability of the diversified farms means that they would be able to meet the higher water charges that would be levied under the Public Works Act. The use of water by farmers has been, and still is, inefficient. For instance, some have deer on dryland despite the availability of irrigated pasture. It is contended that farmers must allocate water to the most profitable use if they are to maximise returns and if irrigation schemes are to remain viable financial operations. Keywords: diversification, water charges
Goats in pens eat about 20% more of a low quality feed than do sheep. This higher intake is just sufficient to match the higher maintenance energy requirement of the goats, so, in reality, they are not more suited to an existence on low quality feeds There is little difference between goats and sheep in the extent to which they digest and utilise feeds. It is clear that goats will eat more browse such as gorse, but under intensive pasture grazing, the dry matter intake of goats falls more rapidly than that of sheep as the herbage mass declines. Goats seem to be unwilling to graze less preferred components of the sward. These results suggest sheep rather than goats have to be used to graze to low herbage masses unless low intakes and performance of goats can be accepted.
Earnscleugh Station covers 24,948 ha, extending from Cromwell Gorge to Fruitlands and over Old Man Range into the Fraser Basin. Altitude varies from 150 m at the homestead to 1600 m at the translator on top of Old Man Range. Climate has hot dry summers, cold winters. Rainfall 300 mm at homestead rising to 1500 mm on back boundary.
The effect of 30 treatments (5 fertiliser rates x 3 stocking densities x 2 grazing methods) on an undeveloped tussock/hawkweed high country grassland site, sown with 12 legumes and 12 grasses and herbs, is reported. The trial was legume dominant for at least four years. with little establishment without applied fertiliser. By the fourth spring, the most successful species were Russell lupin, red clover and alsike clover at intermediate fertility inputs (50-250 kg/ha) and alsike and white clover under irrigation plus high superphosphate fertiliser input (500 kg/ha).
Tagasaste was successfully established from spring sown seed, drilled into cultivated ground and into herbicide treated pasture (55% and 40% of viable seed established respectively after 12 weeks) when spring soil temperatures reached about 13°C (at 10 cm). Seed drilled into short pasture suffered from plant competition and seed broadcast onto herbicide-treated and short pastures failed to establish (each <7% establishment after 12 weeks). Mid September sowings were slower to establish than October or November sowings because of cooler soils. Established plants, in rows (equivalent to 10,00O plants/ha) on two hill sites and cut either once or twice per year to 30 cm, gave a mean annual production of 1.6 kg DM/plant,ln another trial established plants cut to 50 cm in August, or December, or both these times, subsequently produced more dry matter than plants grazed by sheep at these times. Guidelines for establishing and managing tagasaste are given. Keywords: tree lucerne, Chamaecytisos palmensis, sowing time, drilling, broadcasting, defoliation, cutting, grazing, production.
Alternative dryland pasture plants drilled into Wairau lucerne may provide improved groundcover for conservation of the sol1 resource and possible productlvlty increases. The results of such trials In the Hakataramaa Valley are presented. Emphasis is on the use of low fertility demanding, frost and drought tolerant grasses, legumes and herbs which, when properly managed, will persist in semi-arid or drought-prone areas. Preliminary results show ‘Grasslands Maru’ phalaris and ‘Luna’ wheatgrass to be promising companion plants, in dryland lucerne. The use of browse shrubs on low producing sunny aspects and their integration with dryland pasture plants is briefly discussed. Benefits include conservation of the soil resource, drought insurance, mlcroclimates and shelter, plus diverslflcation of stock nutrition and forage supply.
Four perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) cultivars have been evaluated at a range of summer-autumn drought prone sites in New Zealand. Evaluation has been carried out at seven repllcated large plot grazing trials sown with clover and one trial without clover evaluated under mowing. The cultivars with a low level of lolium endophyte (Acremonium loliae) infection, Ruanui and the majority of Nui lines, have displayed poor persistence. In summer-autumn dry areas, sowing seed with a high endophyte content appears the only alternative to obtain a persistent perennial ryegrass pasture. Within the high endophyte cultivars (Yatsyn 1, Ellett and some Nui lines), Yatsyn 1 has performed consistently well in terms of long term yielding ability, indicating persistence. Keywords: Lolium perenne, endophyte (Acremonium loliae), annual yields, seasonal yields, Ruanui, Nui, Ellett, Yatsyn 1.
This is a record of the concepts included in a play ‘For(ced) Sale: High Country Development’ presented at the 1986 NZ Grassland Association Conference. Three pasture development options considered for high country properties were: 1 . high input nitrogen fertiliser and improved grass; 2. oversown improved legume species and an improved package of management options which are especially applicable to dry sunny faces where establishment has been traditionally difficult; and 3. low input development based on meeting the nutrient requirements of resident legumes using high analysis fertiliser. Aspects of the nitrogen option have been considered by Hall and Scott (1985); the oversown legume option was reviewed by Allan et al. (1985) and some background for the system based on resident legumes was reported by Boswell (1986).
A collection of 65 accessions of tagasaste was grown in Palmerston North for description and analysis of potentially useful variation within the species. Variability within populations of tagasaste was high (74-90% of the phenotypic variation) but differences between populations were also evident. In particular there is a large amount of potentially useful variation both within and between populations for production and growth habit. Initial evidence suggests that much of this variation is heritable, with broad-sense heritabilities ranging from 36-64%, and that the potential for breeding Improved varieties is good. Keywords: Browse shrubs, plant breeding, growth habit, heritability Chamaecytisus palmensis.
This paper reviews the problem of introducing grasses into tussock grassland. The remarks will be of value to those who are contemplating oversowing grasses into tussock grassland. Where an extended grazing season, improved pasture quality or increased total yield of tussock grassland is required, cocksfoot and ryegrass is recommended to provide higher spring and autumn yields. However, this intended advantage is often reduced by poor establishment and/or survival (often less than 1%) particularly if attention is not paid to correct establishment techniques. The contribution of the oversown and resident grasses to total yields will vary, largely due to management practices. In addition on sites where adventive grasses like browntop are already present, there is little evidence to suggest that oversowing grasses will improve total yields or seasonal pasture productivity. This review illustrates that the introduction of grasses into tussock grasslands may not always give the benefits sought. Keywords: Oversowing, establishment, survival
This paper provides an overview of trends in marketing at the national level and in regions such as Central Otago. The movement away from centrally co-ordinated marketing strategies and the increased sophistication of marketing and processing are highlighted. Such developments have implications for the structure of the agricultural and horticultural marketing systems. It is suggested that there is a requirement for improved strategy development and planning by individual firms. This can best be aided at the national level, by considering ways in which the planning by individual firms can be improved. Several specific areas in which improvements could be made are discussed. Keywords: trends in marketing, marketing enviornment.
This paper covers the medium term market opportunities for NZ lamb in the UK, West Germany and US. These three markets could be developed to accommodate consumer ready cuts from 235,000 tonnes of lamb carcasses, an increase in value of $165 m to NZ by 1990. This could mean an increase to value to NZ farmers of about $10 per head above the schedule ruling during the April/June period of 1985. To achieve this, the NZ lamb exporters, farmers, government departments and all participants in the meat industry must work together towards agreed goals. The provision of a high quality, convenient. good value food item, backed with first class customer service must be the primary objective. Keywords: Market opportunities, NZ lamb exports, UK, West Germany, USA.
The traditional mix of white, red and alsike clovers with cocksfoot, ryegrass and timothy was used to improve approximately 2000 ha on Tara Hills High Country Research Station during the 1950s and 1960s. The present frequency of these species, as well as the adventives sweet vernal and browntop, were recorded over contrasting altitude (low, 500-750 m vs high, 750-1000 m), aspect (sunny verses shady) and grazing management (controlled versus uncontrolled utilisation). White clover was the most successful of the oversown clovers, and was most abundant on the moist shady faces. Red clover did not persist on landscapes where utilisation was controlled. Alsike displayed similar landscape and management preferences to red clover. There is a need for a legume that will persist under well utilised low, sunny landscapes. Cocksfoot dominated landscapes where utilisation was uncontrolled, except for high shady faces where browntop was dominant. With controlled utilisation, the frequency of cocksfoot was reduced considerably. Ryegrass was the only introduced grass to show greater frequency under controlled utilisation. The presence of timothy was insignificant on all landscapes. Sweet vernal displayed similar tolerances of environment and management to cocksfoot. Keywords: pasture species, landscapes, aspect, altitude, pasture utilisation.
Production of two rhizomatous clovers, Caucasian clover (Trifolium ambiguum) and zigzag clover (T. medium), was assessed under a number of fertility regimes. Caucasian clover annual dry matter production was of 12 t/ha for cv. Treeline on a fertile lowland soil, 8.5 t/ha for cv. Prairie on a moderately fertile hill country soil and 2.5 t/ha for cv. Prairie on a low fertility high country soil. For a 30 year old stand of zigzag clover on a moderately fertile high country soil estimated DM yields ranged from 2 t/ha under low fertiliser applications to 10 t/ha under high fertiliser rates. The stand gave a 3.2 t DM/ha response to the addition of 50 kg/ha sulphur alone. Both clovers are very persistent and appear to remain productive for several years in the absence of fertiliser applications
Lamb meat production from an irrigated old ryegrass pasture farmlet is reported for the following conditions in successive years:- Year 1 and 2: Stocked at 18 ewes plus 5 ewe replacements/ha - dry summers Year 3: Same stocking rate as year 1 - moist summer Year 4: Stocking rate reduced to 15 ewes plus 4 replacements/ha - dry summer Year 5: Same stocking rate as year 4 - wet summer Mean carcass weight for all lambs in years l-5 was respectively 12.0, 12.4, 13.4, 12.0 and 14.2 kg; lamb meat production was respectively 241, 257, 252, 214 and 262 kg/ha. At high stocking rates, in the years with dry summers, early drafting of light weight lambs was necessary so that other lambs could achieve a target carcase weight of 13-16 kg. However ewe lambs did not reach that target. For two years with reduced stocking rate, dry summer weather in one of these years still precluded ewe lambs from reaching the target. In the other year with wet summer weather, production per lamb and per hectare was satisfactory. Further management means of increasing production of heavy weight lamb are discussed. Keywords: Pasture yields, lamb production, carcase weight, wool production
Expanding chilled lamb markets are increasingly looking to NZ as an all year round supplier of product. To achieve this in increasing quantities, changes to traditional lamb production patterns are required. It is up to the meat exporting companies to provide the monetary incentives to farmers for change. While on-farm changes may result in less total physical product, they will achieve for some farmers in climatically suited areas a higher net return; ie less production but a higher price for the type and timing of the product to satisfy market requirements.
On dryland at Winchmore Irrigation Research Station in Mid Canterbury high levels of lamb production were obtained during 12 years in a self-contained lucerne/supplementary forage farmlet. The system established lucerne under a barley crop and used turnips with Italian ryegrass and Tama ryegrass in the lucerne renewal rotation. Lucerne hay and barley grain and straw were conserved for supplementary feed. Stocked at 15 ewes/ha, lamb meat production varied from 210-300 kg/ha between years. This variation reflected the effect of dry summer conditions on both lucerne growth and the establishment of the supplementary crops which in turn influenced ewe prolificacy and lamb growth. Because of yield variability and increasing costs, use of annual forage crops in a dryland sheep unit is questioned. Keywords: grazing, management, forage crops, lamb production
The broad soil pattern of Central Otago is outlined. Four soil zones are identified and their climate, vegetation and landscape characteristics given. The paper reviews causes of variation in soil properties at the detailed, farm scale. The highly variable soil pattern on many farms is caused by the wide variations in climate and topography which often occur within short distances in Central Otago. Farmers need to understand the soil pattern on their property to enable them to use soil resources efficiently, particularly with respect to fertiliser use and year-round integration of stock management between different soils of varying agricultural potential. The paper uses a local example to show how important soil chemical, morphological and physical properties can be measured and the resulting information used as the basis of achieving more efficient land use. Keywords: Soil pattern, agricultural production potential, brown-grey earth soils, yellow-grey earth soils, yellow-brown earth soils.
Although lucerne substantially outproduces pasture in the 350-800 mm rainfall environment of Central Otago, the area has only been maintained in two counties - Vincent & Lake. In the third, Maniototo, the area has declined. Impeded drainage with wet seasons is considered a cause. The identification of areas suitable for lucerne establishment is aided by a soluble aluminium test of the soil and profile examination. In Central Otago pest incidence is low and disease is only a problem on irrigated lucerne. Lenient management in the autumn and early spring will aid total production. Keywords: establishment, soil-test, pests, disease, management
A grazing trial in Central Otago compared the effectiveness of feral goats, Angora goats and Merino sheep for sweet brier control. The three animal types were set stocked in replicate 0.5 ha paddocks at 10 Angoras, 14 ferals and 12 Merinos per ha. Goats were also rotationally grazed on a 50 ha block at approximately 10 goats per ha. Goat grazing reduced living brier in the trial paddocks to negligible proportions within 2 years whilst sheep grazing had minimal impact. Goat grazing resulted in increased clover content within the sward in trial paddocks. A reduction in brier density was also recorded on the 50 ha block. Keywords: Angoras, Merinos, white clover
Percentage germination and germination rate (days to 75% germination) of 14 herbage cultivars from 5 legume species were assessed at constant temperatures of 5°, 10°, 15°, 20° and a fluctuating temperature of 5/1O°C. The percentage germination of white clover, red clover and lucerne was not affected by temperature. Germination of Woogenellup subterranean clover was reduced at 5”C, the germination of Mt Barker subterranean clover was reduced at 2O°C, and the germination of Maku lotus was reduced at 5°C and 5/10°C. Germination rates for all species slowed as temperatures moved away from the optimum, as did the number of days to the start of growth. The species order for germination rate was lucerne, white clover >subterranean clover > red clover >lotus at 10° and 5/1O°C, and subterranean clover (except cv. Woogenellup), white clover, lucerne>red clover>lotus at 5°C. Germination rates differed between subterranean clover cultivars, and also between individual seedlots of subterranean clover, red and white clover and lotus, particularly at 5°C. The implications of these results for pasture establishment are discussed. Keywords: germination rate, pasture establishment
The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) introduced into New Zealand in the 183Os, has consistently flourished in Central Otago, the upper Waitaki, and inland Marlborough, all areas of mediterranean climate. It has proved difficult to manage in these habitats. The ‘rabbit problem’ is largely confined to 105,000 ha of low producing land mostly in semi arid areas of Central Otago. No field scale modifications of the natural habitat have been successful in limiting rabbit numbers. The costs of control exceed the revenue from the land and continued public funding for control operations appears necessary. A system for classifying land according to the degree of rabbit proneness is described. Soil survey and land classification information for Central Otago is related to the distribution and density of rabbits. This intormation can be used as a basis for defining rabbit carrying capacity and consequent land use constraints and management needs. It is concluded that the natural rabbit carrying capacity of land can be defined by reference to soil survey information and cultural modification to the natural vegetation. Classification of land according to rabbit proneness is proposed as a means of identifying the need for, and allocation of, public funding tor rabbit management. Keywords: Rabbit habitat, rabbit proneness, use of rabbit prone land.
When purchased in 1946 Tara Hills was in a rundown state and typical of large areas of inland Otago depleted by overgrazing. Since then development by oversowing, topdressing, fencing, irrigation, together with rabbit control have given large increases in production. The stock units have increased from 1240 in 1946 to 11,066 in 1966 and wool production has increased from 1.3 kg/ha to 13.4 kg/ha. Since 1975 the gross income per hectare has risen from $21/ha to peak at $131/ha in 1984. These levels of production provide a sharp contrast to the much lower production of the average South Island high country run. Keywords: wool, income.
This paper honours the contribution of the E.S. Levy to the development of improved pasture plant cultivars in New Zealand by reviewing his work on ecotype development within herbage species. Starting in the late 19209, Levy compared at a single site many thousands of seed lines of pasture grass and legume species collected from both within New Zealand and overseas. In several species, including perennial ryegrass, white clover, red clover, cocksfoot and subterranean clover, he showed the existence of genetically distinct strains (ecotypes) which he claimed had developed under the farming practices, climate and soil fertility in their areas of origin. This work led to the enunciation of pasture plant breeding objectives, the development of improved pasture cultivars and a strategy for grassland improvement. This wes based on permanent pasture Hawke’s Bay perennial ryegrass and New Zealand No. 1 white clover, bred for use in high production forage systems throughout New Zealand. The breeding objectives rejected by Levy, such as the development of improved cultivars for low production systems, must be reconsidered in view of today’s changed environment for pastoral farming. Keywords: ecotypic differentiation, evolution, improved cultivars, plant breeding objectives.
Distribution patterns of white clover, perennial ryegrass and cocksfoot were measured when oversown with granulated superphosphate in contrasting cross wind speeds, under both airfield and hill country conditions. Increasing velocity of cross wind reduced the variability of spread of all components. Swath width increased, and maximum seed rate declined, with increasing cross wind. Some separation of seed types occurred, with the tighter fractions being moved further downwind. Measured distribution patterns from single flights were used to estimate paddock scale applications by overlapping swaths at normal flight path spacings for a Fletcher FU24-950 aircraft (12 m centres). The proportion of land receiving less than half the target application rate declined from 50%, under near calm conditions, to nil, under conditions of medium cross winds (e.g. l0-12 km/h). Wind is therefore a desirable factor during oversowing operations and significantly reduces variability of overall distribution. Keywords: hill country. superphosphate, PAPR, oversowing, topdressing
Early plant introduction in Australia and NZ involved familiar European species and simple general principles. ‘First-generation’ pasture cultivars in both countries were based on naturalized or cultivated material originally brought by colonists. Later, imported material was systematically used to improve these established varieties and produce ‘second-generation’ cultivars more closely adapted to local ecological conditions and agronomic systems. This simple approach proved inadequate for new and difficult environments which required different types of plant, and new species were sometimes tried and discarded prematurely because their potential was not fully displayed in the limited material initially available. Experience with Sfylosanthes in Australia shows that full suites of germplasm are necessary to evaluate a new species properly, and that such material should be deliberately and systematically collected from areas of similar or more extreme climate, particular attention being paid to edaphic characteristics. To obtain suitable legumes for the cold dry high country of the South Island collections from homologous regions in places such as Chile, Argentina, Kashmir, and the USSR may be useful. Keywords: plant introduction, Stylosanthes, Lotus, South America, Australia, New Zealand
This paper makes recognition of the fact that planned changes have occurred and must continue to occur in order for both the meat industry and Advisory Services Division, MAF to remain competitive. The adoption by the Division of a market-driven, whole-industry approach is explained. This approach enables resources to be directed towards any component of the consumer-producer pathway. An industry capable of reflecting to the suppliers of its raw product the demands of the market, together with industry-wide adoption of the quality management approach, is discussed. The future is full of opportunities, New Zealand’s unique natural and pure image being a prominent one.
The performance of 55 Lotus pedunculatus lines of diverse type and origin was assessed on acid and infertile soils on the East Otago Plateau at 3 sites representing an altitudinal sequence of increasing severity of climate. Tetraploid lines and lines with Mediterranean parentage were more susceptible to out-of-season frosting than their diploid equivalents and lines without Mediterranean parentage. By the 3rd summer, a diploid NZ selection, G4701, showed a good combination of high herbage yields, rhizome spread and tolerance of frosting at all sites. G4701, its tetraploid equivalent, G4702, and a selection from within the cultivar Grasslands Maku for rapid germination at low termperatures produced the highest yields averaged over the 3 sites in the altitudinal sequence. The use of these lines is likely to enhance the role of lotus in tussock grassland pasture systems. Keywords: Maku, G4701, G4702, low temperature germination, frost damage, rhizome spread, herbage yield.
Central Otago is the driest, the coldest, as well as one of the hottest areas in New Zealand. Within Central Otago an enormous diversity of land use occurs. This ranges from intensive horticulture to extensive high country pastoral farming. Pastoral farming is perhaps best known for wool production, in particular merino wool. History tells us that sheep farming was profitable for many years and in 1871 Otago had 3.7 m sheep or about 4% of the national. Things were done on a grand scale in those early days. As an example, the woolshed on the Teviot run held 8,000 sheep and 40 shearing stands. History will also tell us that the Land Development Encouragement Loan Scheme (LDEL) and the Livestock Incentive Scheme (LIS) had an enormous impact on Central Otago. In Otago 195,000 ha of tussock country was oversown and topdressed and this accounted for 27% of the national total spent on LDEL. History will also tell us that 1985-86 was catastrophic financially for most pastoral farmers and the outlook for 1986-87 shows little improvement.
The future approach to efficient fertiliser use on hill and high country pastures must increasingly recognise that most farms are a complex mosaic of widely different environments - with an associated range in production potential, carrying capacity and fertiliser requirement. Although the importance of broad regional soil patterns has been recognised in the past, little allowance has been made for significant local landscape and soil variations. The plant nutrient needs of component parts of the landscape mosaic can be assessed by soil testing and met by fertiliser materials whose quantity and composition match those nutrient requirements in most situations. Strategies should be developed to ensure that fertiliser regimes, pasture plants and management practices are selected and orchestrated to make the most effective use of each mosaic component on each individual farm. In effect this involves selective fertiliser use, geared to the limitations, characteristics and growth patterns of individual landscape units, which are managed to meet the seasonal feed requirements of stock in the most cost effective way. A case study of Tara Hills is presented, showing how selective use of fertiliser on individually fenced landscape units can be matched to the use of these units (paddocks or blocks) in a management system designed to fit the seasonal Stock feed requirements for a high country pastoral run. Finally the importance of plant requirements, soil properties, grazing management, fertiliser form and composition, and spreading methods are reviewed with respect to fertiliser efficiency in the hill and high country.
The objective of this study was to use two growth media to determine the extent of intraspecific variation for aluminium (Al).tolerance within white clover (Trifolium repens cv. Grasslands Huia). A further objective was to evaluate the sensitivity of the germinating and establishing seedling to Al. Addition of Al (500 mg kg-1 of soil) as Ah(SO,), to the Wainui silt loam (Typic Dystrochrept) which caused severe reductions in shoot growth of 30 d seedlings, only slightly reduced the germination or establishment of the seedling. This is an important finding as little would be gained from improving, by selection, Al tolerance in white clover if the plant was unable to germinate and establish in such unfavourable conditions. Sufficient intraspecific variation in Al tolerance exists within white clover to select for a superior Al-tolerant cultivar. Keywords: White clover, Trifolium repens, aluminium tolerance, soil culture, solution culture.