Thank you for the opportunity to present this address in my home district, from where I started my business career in aviation in 1949. The 34 years have been eventful, stimulating and satisfying, particularly when it has been said so many times that the agricultural aviation industry has been the single most important development in post war years, in arresting the lost production from New Zealand hill country. The main contribution tq,the threefold increase in stock unit numbers has been the service provided by the aviation industry. It is a record that we, who created it, and spent our working lifetime on, can be justly proud.
The role of alternative phosphorus sources to single superphosphate as a maintenance fertiliser for hill country was evaluated in five experiments between 1986 1982. The experiments were located at Gisborne, Rotorua and Te Kuiti. Reactive rock phosphate-sulphur granules (previously known as biosuper) were as effective as superphosphate in the year of application, but the reactive rock phosphates applied alone were as effective on only two of the sites. Superphosphate/reactive rock mixtures were less effective than superphosphate. While most fertilisers had substantial residual effects in the second year after application there was no clear pattern between materials. When taken over two years, a single biennial application of all fertilisers was at least as effective as two annual dressings at half the rate. The role of alternative phosphorus fertilisers is discussed in terms of their cost and agronomic effectiveness, the requirements for other elements,and the structure of the present fertiliser industry. Keywords: superphosphate, phosphorus, phosphatic fertilisers, biosuper, hill country, Sechura, North Carolina, Jordan.
Subterranean clover and white clover plant material was collected from 85 sites located in summerdry northern North Island hill country. Plants of both species originating from this collection were grown and typed at Whatwhata Hill Country Research Station. Using several cultivars and selections as standards, measurements were made of morphological, flowering and reseeding characteristics. The subterranean clover population consisted of 44% Mt Barker type, 28% Tallarook type and the remainder an undetermined intermediate type. Mt Barker types in the collection tended to flower later and for longer than their Mt Barker standard, while Tallarook types tended to flower earlier and for longer than StandardTallarook. White clover plants were smaller and more densely leaved than ‘Grasslands Huia’, the population mean being similar to ‘Grasslands Tahora’. A vast majority (7035%) of plants flowered earlier and yielded more seed than Huia and Tahora. An apparent shift in plant type has occurred within clover populations in summerdry hill country, the most notable being the development of a more flexible reseeding pattern. This type can be a future guide to breeding clovers suitable to these environment . Keywords: white clover, subterranean clover, flowering, seeding, morphology, type hill country
This paper, as well as giving an account of my experience in acquiring and farming Maori land on a leasehold basis, will also highlight to those aspiring to do the same, the difficulties and frustrations they are likely to encounter. In 1958, my father took over the lease of Wharekahika A47 Block, situated 200 kilometres north of Gisborne, comprising 1,183 hectares, with l00-odd owners holding 9,667 shares. The lease was for twenty-one years with a right of renewal, with reduced rental only to my father -that is, if the lease was to pass out of his hands, the rental would double from $1.431.00 to $2,862.00. This lease was the result of a meeting of owners at which some people were offering up to 6% of capital value with talk even of 10% of capital value.
This collection of papers does four significant things: 1. It concentrates on hill country. 2. Precisely defines the research environment in pasture levels and animal production terms. One can clearly see the consequences in animal production at different times of the year when pre-grazing and residual herbage levels are defined and varied and to see the effects of different grazing systems at these pasture levels. Much better than high vs low stocking rates. 3. Attempts to set pature targets as well as animal production targets. 4. Defines critical pasture DM levels both below which pasture production is reduced, and above which control is lost. The proximity to these critical levels will, for a farmer, more precisely define the grazing management system he should adopt and the levels of animal production he should be able to achieve
The results of an analysis of four years data, 1975/76-1978/79, from a farm management study of Gisborne-East Coast hill country farms were presented at the 1980 Grasslands Conference. Analysis of three more years data, 1979/80-1981/82, essentially confirms the association of fencing and fertiliser with high levels of animal production. Recent escalating costs of fertiliser have cast doubts on its profitability. High stocking rates (usually beyond 12 su/ha) and high proportions of cattle (usually up to 50% of su) have emerged as other factors consistently associated with greater productivity and frequently with profitability. It is suggested that manipulation of these factors would be worthy of farmers consideration. The practical implications for the future of these findings are discussed. Keywords: Farm production, farm profit, Gisborne hill country
Seed of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cv. ‘Grasslands Ruanui’) either untreated, treated with the fungicide captan, coated by a commercial process or coated plus captan, was oversown by hand into existing pastures at three separate hill country sites in Manawatu, Southern Hawke’s Bay and Northern Wairarapa. The sites experienced dry, moist and wet conditions respectively, during the period after oversowing. Seedling establishment was poor at all sites and was unaffected by different seed treatments. The number of seedlings decreased between 2 and 8 weeks after oversowing at the moist and wet sites, but increased during this time at the dry site. Seedling establishment levels (% of viable seeds sown) at the three sites 8 weeks after oversowing were: dry, 17%; moist, 11%; and wet, 14%. It was only at the dry site that large numbers of viable seeds were recovered four weeks after oversowing. These results typify the poor levels of establishment that are achieved in hill country from oversown grass seed. Keywords: pasture establishment, perennial ryegrass, seed treatment, oversowing, hill country.
Five combinations of attachments were compared with an unmodified Fletcher aircraft for ability to spread fertiliser granules in a wide swath,over flat land at Napier, North Island. Lateral spread of fertiliser, applied at a nominal rate of approximately 500 kg/ha, was measured by the aircraft flying over a grid of collectors, making two passes for each configuration of attachments. An increase in lateral spread of fertiliser was obtained when theaircraft topdressed in each of the configurations with the tetrahedron spreader fitted but this was accompanied by a marked decrease in rate of application. For example, with the tetrahedron spreader lowered, with streamlining fairings fitted to the front and rear of the hopper outlet, and with accelerator ducts attached to the front f&ring, the swath width increased by 32%. up to 33 m, and the central peak from the distribution pattern, typical of that produced by an unmodified aircraft, was reduced. However the measured application rate fell to approximately 190 kg/ha with this combination of attachments compared with the 427 kg/ha for the unmodified aircraft. Further tests with an unmodrfied aircraft at lower application rates are needed before a direct comparison of swath width can be made. Keywords: Tetrahedron fertiliser spreader, topdressing, lateral spread, fertiliser distribution, hill country
Soil fertility has a dominant influence on the productivity of many hill country pastures. In the Gisborne-East Coast hill country the dominant soil groups - the yellow-brown earths (YBEs) from mudstone/argillite and the yellow-brown pumice soils (YBPs) from Taupo pumice tephra - show variations in response to fertiliser inputs. Results from a series of eight field trials, commenced in 1980, indicate widespread phosphorus (P) deficiency across both groups with optimum Olsen P soil test values being calculated as 11.5 and 20.1 respectively. Sulphur deficiencies appear less important, in the short term, than previously thought. Lime (L) and molybdenum (MO) deficiencies appear widespread on YEEs with an indication on some sites that lime effects are over and above that due to increased MO availability. Potassium (KI is the dominant deficiency (after P) on YBPs. Element deficiencies in decreasing order of importance were - Y BEs, P > L/MO > S > K; Y BPS, P > K > S > L. Keywords: Fertilisers, hill country, pasture production.
A grazing management trial in North Canterbury. compares the effects on burnt gorse, of goats or sheep grazed alone, or in mixtures with two goats equivalent to one sheep, with either rotational grazing or set stocking. Also, sheep alone are mob stocked on burnt gorse, and goats alone, set stocked on unburnt gorse. Goats alone at stocking rates up to 35/ha and a sheep/goat mixture which is rotationally grazed, have reduced gorse to negligible proportions after two years, although relatively few burnt gorse stumps have yet died. Gorse control has been less successful where a sheep/goat mixture has been set stocked or where sheep have been mob stocked at 2001ha. The least effective treatments have been sheep either set stocked or rotationally grazed at up to 17,5/ha. Stands of dense unburnt gorse up to 2m high were reduced from 66% gorse cover to 7% using 44 goats/ha set stocked for one year. Stocking rates of up to IO goats/ha had little effect on land with 50% gorse cover, but 30 goats/ha reduced gorse to 5% cover in the subsequent year. The persistence of five grass species (‘Grasslands Nui’ perennial ryegrass, ‘Grasslands Wana’ and ‘Grasslands Apanui’cocksfoot, ‘Massey Basyn’ Yorkshire fog and browntop) and their abilities to suppress gorse, were compared under rotational and set stocked goat managements. After two years, there were no significant differences among grasses under rotational grazing, but browntop had become significantly moresuccessful than Apanui cocksfoot, under set stocking. Gorse cover was-=&% in all grass species treatments, including the unsown control plots, with no significant differences between set stocking and rotational grazing. Keywords: Gorse, goats, sheep, grazing management, ryegrass, cocksfoot, Yorkshire fog, browntop.
The successful management of livestock grazing pasture under a tree canopy requires an understanding of the interaction between the trees and pasture. Because of the constraints with the trees there are a number of agricultural management factors requiring special consideration. Details are given on the potential for early grazing soon after tree planting, as well as special requirements in the management of both livestock and pasture. Keywords: Pinus radiata; agroforestrv; forest farming; early grazing; weed control; livestock production.
Studies in the UK on continuously stocked swards dominated by perennial ryegrass show that both net herbage production and lamb output per hectare are maximised when herbage mass is maintained at 1200-I 500 kg OM/ha (3-5 cm surface height) during the main season of growth. The use of this information to define sward management objectives is outlined, and the incorporation of these objectives into the spring and summer phases of a grassland sheep enterprise is illustrated
Three fertiliser trials on hill country yellow-brown earths are discussed, The results show that on a newly sown ryegrass (Lolium perenne) white clover (Trifolium repens) Pasture 90% maximum pasture production was achieved at an Olsen P level of 13-15 ppm. On a reverted browntop (Agrostis tenuis) pasture an Olsen P concentration of at least 25 ppm was required for 90% maximum production. Reasons for this difference are discussed. Liming increased pasture dry matter production on all sites and the largest increases in production occurred at low (1.25 t/ha) rates. There was no evidence that liming enhanced P availability and therefore lime and P requirements for these soils should be considered independently. Phosphorus applications generally increased legume production but the effects of lime were variable. On the Mahoenui soil liming increased grass growth at the expense of the legume component but on the Marua soils liming increased the legume content. An explanation for this is suggested. The practical implications of these results are discussed. Keywords: lime, phosphorus, fertiliser requirements, yellow brown earths, hill country, pasture production, pasture composition, ryegrass, white clover, browntop.
Comparisons of controlling late spring to early summer pasture growth on either easy or steep contoured land with either a fast rotation or continuous grazing policy were made in self-contained farmlets for two years. Pasture control was maintained over more land by controlling steep land first and with continuous grazing. Animal performances (ewes, steers) were generally similar for the mid-November to early January treatment period, and subsequently until May shearing. In the first year better animal performances occurred in “steep control” farmlets during winter and early spring, but this was less evident in the second year. Priority control of steep land during late spring-early summer is recommended because of likely longer-term benefits in pasture composition,density and production. Quick rotation grazing through the period provides a better ability to recognise and manage pasture quantities and should be adopted if summer droughts are anticipated. For well fenced properties in summer-wet areas and with integrated stock grazing, continuous grazing during late spring-early summer may be equally suitable. Keywords: hill country, grazing management, pasture control
When nitrogen fertiliser is applied to soil, some of the N may be lost to the atmosphere in the form of ammonia. Different forms of fertiliser are more or less susceptible to losing N after application, and climatic conditions are known to influence volatilisation rates.
Hill swards under mob stocking by sheep at Taupo, Ballantrae and Wairarapa were sampled every three months for one year and white clover stolon dissected into three vertical classes: aerial, surface and buried. In 198081 swards at Ballantrae under three different grazing managements, rotationally grazed by cattle IRGC) and by sheep (RGS) and set stocked by sheep (SSS), were sampled six times over one year and white clover stolon dissected out. The distribution of stolon among the three vertical classes varied with season. Buried stolon ranged from a minimum of 42% in autumn to a maximum of 86% in early spring. The proportion of stolon in the aerial and surface classes peaked in summer at 14% and 48% respectively and was at a minimum in early spring (l%and 13%). Distribution of stolon among the vertical classes differed among sites. The Taupo site had respectively 12% and 17% less stolen buried than the Ballantrae and Wairarapa sites. Environmental conditions such as overgrazing during drought reduced the amount of white clover stolon by up to 70% and modified distribution in favour of the buried class. Grazing management had a large effect both on the amount of stolon in the swerds and on the morphology of stolons. Under RGC there was greater total stolon weight (570 kg/ha) than under RGS (310 kg/ha) and SSS (225 kg/ha). Stolons under RGC were heavier per unit length by 32% and 53% respectively than the stolons under RGS and SSS managements. Keywords: white clover, hill swards,stolons,grazing management, vertical distribution, stolon morphology.
Hill country pasture was grazed by the following ratios of goats and sheep from 1979-l 983: 100% goats (Goat 100). 66% goats and 34% sheep (Goat 66)) 33% goats and 67% sheep (doat 33), 100% set-stocked sheep (Sheep 100) and 100% mobstocked sheep. Changes in botanical composition, herbage mass and herbage accumulation rate were measured by sample dissection, visual estimation and trimmed exclosure cages respectively on three slope classes (banks, slopes and tracks). Pastures grazed by goats developed Yorkshire fog IHolcus lanatus)- white clover (Trifolium repens L.) associations with strong white clover growth on all slope classes unlike sheep-grazed pastures which contained little white clover and were dominated by perennial’ ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and browntop (Agrostis tenuis Sibth.). The herbage mass of 3000, 1830, 1410 kg DM/ha on banks, slopes and tracks respectively for Sheep 100 pastures contrasted with that on the Goat 100 pastures of 2030, 3750 and 4300 kg DM/ha. White clover was enhanced on all slope classes in the Goat 100 treatment. Annual herbage accumulation was greater on the Goat 100 than Sheep 100 pastures, 13.9 and 11.2 t DM/ha respectively. There was a close association between increased annual white clover accumulation and tofal herbage accumulation. The complementary nature of sheepandgoatgrazing behavioursuggeststhe possibility of increased meat and fibre production from mixed grazing. The implications of these results for future research are discussed. Keywords: Sheep, goats, herbage mass, herbage accumulation rate, botanical composition, slope classes, white clover (Trifolium repens L.), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), Yorkshire fog (Holcus lanatusl, browntop (Agrostis tenuis Sibth.).
Large areas of North Island hill country are producing below potential as a result of low fertility and poor pasture composition. Removal of undesirable species and replacement with a higher producing pasture is essential for increased productivity but is difficult to achieve. A development programme is described where the use of glyphosate in close association with oversowing and stock management has allowed rapid pasture establishment, marked increase in carrying capacity and a quick return on investment. Keywords: Pasture establishment, glyphosate, oversowing, white clover, subdivision, productivity.
Components of growth and defoliation of perennial ryagrass and browntop tillers and white clover stolen apices ware measured for 12 months in hill pastures set stocked (SS) or rotationally grazed (RG) with sheep. Leaf appearance intervals of the grasses were unaffected by grazing management. Tiller densities were greater under SS (annual mean 29,700 total tillers/m’ cf. 20,100/m* under FIG), compensating for greater leaf extension rates and lamina lengths of individual tillers under RG. White clover leaf appearance intervals were similar under both managements except in summer when RG was superior to SS during 3 grazing rotations. Defoliation of grass tillers was more frequent under SS when rotation lengths exceeded 3 weeks, but more severe (in terms of leaf length removed) under RG throughout the year. These mechanisms, combined with tiller density differences.contributed to the likelihood of equal leaf removal per unit area under both managements. Some advantage to RG in ryegrass leaf growth and total leaf removal was indicated but the differences were small and unlikely to affect animal production. White clover leaf removal was similar under both managements. Grazed swards are dynamic and can change rapidly under different grazing managements; however, at acceptable levels of pasture utilisation, the dominant responSes appear to maintain an equilibrium in leaf growth. Thus the use of other procedures, e.g. fertiliser application and increases in stocking rate, in conjunction with management changes is required to substantially alter pasture and animal production. Keywords: hill country, grazing management, pasture productivity, perennial ryegrass, browntop, white clover, leaf growth, tiller density, defoliation frequency, defoliation severity.
On most New Zealand sheep farms continuous stocking is practised for the period lambing to weaning. Levels of herbage mass are frequently low both before and after lambing and the high demands of the lactating ewe often results in these low levels being maintained until weaning. Low levels of herbage mass depress herbage growth, herbage intake and animal liveweight gain. A simple simulation model was used to integrate the effects of herbage mass at lambing, pattern of herbage growth during lactation and stocking rate into production functions of animal performance versus stocking rate. These functions demonstrate the necessity at high stocking rates for herbage mass levels to be at least 1000 kg DM/ha at the beginning of lambing if the detrimental effects of prolonged periods of low herbage mass on both herbage and animal production are to be minimised. Keywords: Animal production, herbage growth rates, herbage mass, production functions.
Measurements of photosynthesis, leaf appearance, leaf death and clover stolen characteristics were made during late summer on an established mixed perennial ryegrass (5241 white clover (Blanca) sward continuously grazed by sheepto maintain sward heights of either 2-3cm (hard grazed) or 10.15cm (lax grazed). In both hard and lax grazed swards, each stolen tip had three petioles on average, and a new leaf appeared and an old leaf (petiole) died every seven days. Under intensive grazing, new clover leaves were grazed within l-2 days of appearance, sometimes before leaflets had unfolded, leaving only petioles on the stolon. The contribution of clover leaflets to the gross photosynthesis of the sward was greater than would be expected from their contribution to the total leaf area. The photosynthesis of petioles was appreciable, though some 25% that of leaves on an area basis. Although white clover became more prostrate and smaller leaved under hard grazing, the adaption was insufficient to prevent most photosynthetic tissue being grazed. The results are discussed in relation to white clover persistence. Keywords: White clover, stolons, leaf size, leaf appearance, photosynthesis, continuous grazing.
six hundred plants of a form of ‘Grasslands Huia’ white clover with a feathermark red mid-rib leaf marking were planted into north aspects on six hill country farms in southern North Island and their performance monitored over four years. Although the plants established well, numbers rapidly declined during the second year, particularly during the dry summer months. Only 12% of the plants remained at five of the six sites after three years. After four years, only one site still retained a significant quantity of the feathermarked Huia, this being a dry site grazed predominantly by cattle during spring. Few Huia plants appeared to be adapted to hill country pastures, Other possible reasons for the lack of persistence in Huia in this trial include livestock treading, especially at wet sites, and pasture pests porina caterpiller and nematodes. Keywords: white clover, persistence, hill country, grazing management, leaf mark, adaptation, pests.
The marketing of seed in New Zealand and the servicing of a large seed export market has traditionally been controlled by the New Zealand Seed Trade. The price which seed commands, however, is capable of wide variation depending on such factors as the overseas demand, the perceived value of the species and cultivar and perhaps by the reputation our seed has in many of the approximately 45 countries who buy seed from New Zealand. In setting the price of a seedlot in any particular selling situation emphasis is also placed on the analytical aspects of seed quality - particularly germination percentage, but also physical purity and freedom from certain weeds, e.g. wild oats (Avena fatua) and nodding thistle (Carduus nutans). In recent years there has become more interest in the term ‘quality’ in seed. This has lead to a greater interest in the development of relatively quick and reliable seed quality testing methods which can be used to expose seed weaknesses which may not be detected in normal laboratory tests for purity and germination. Various rapid methods for testing seed quality have been developed to allow distinction to be made between seedlots of high potential storability and vigour and seedlots which have already begun to deteriorate. Such tests can also be used to detect possible causes of deterioration and whether this has occurred as a result of mechanical injury during threshing, poor drying technology, damage during processing or seed treatment, or to deterioration due to respiration heating, fungal activity or poor storage conditions. This paper examines the use of post-harvest seed quality assessment techniques such as tetrazolium testing, vigour testing, heat and storage fungal tests, accelerated ageing methods and x-ray analysis for determining seed quality in maize. The methods shown however, may be equally applicable to a much wider range of seed species.
Measuremgnts of Pasture production were made on both Easy (1 O-20’ slope) and Steep (30-40 slope) strata of a yellow brown earth-brown granular loam hill soil complex of medium P retention status. Results showed that whereas maximum growth required 50 kg P/ha/year on Easy slopes (14,900 kg DM/ha) only 30 kg P/ha/year were needed on Steep slopes (7700 kg DM/ha). Efficiency of production IEP) in kg DM/kg P from Easy and Steep slopes was similar at the same relative production level but much higher from Easy slopes at any one fertiliser rate. There was a poor relationship between soil Olsen P status and relative yield. However maximum production was obtained with mean Olsen P levels (O-7 cm depth) of 15, on Easy Slopes, and 10 on the Steep slopes. A procedure is described to assist in setting fertiliser rates for topdressing hill country. Keywords: hill country, phosphate fertiliser, pasture production, efficiency of production
Sulla (Hedysarum coronarium L.) is suitable for soil conservation work because it fixes nitrogen, grows satisfactorily over a wide range of soil conditions and tolerates drought and coastal conditions. A nursery trial conducted on a Manawatu fine sandy loam examined the effect of sowing rates (20, 40 and 60 kg/ha) and dehulling seed on establishment and forage and seed production. While increasing seed rate and dehulling seed resulted in more rapid establishment (higher plant densities, ground cover and canopy height) they did not affect forage or seed yields at harvest six months later. Keywords: sulla, soil conservation, hulling.
The results and implications of applying remote sensing techniques together with pasture measurements to quantify the influence of soil slip erosion oh hill country pasture productivity in the Wairarapa are reviewed. Sequential aerial photographs were used to identify, date, and measure the area of slip scars of different age. The reduction in potential productivity of hillslopes due to erosion was then determined by measuring the pasture growth ratesof the different aged slips (and uneroded ground) and integrating these with the proportions of the hillslopes of each age class. Three years of pasture measurements in the Wairarapa hill country showed that although slips revegetated rapidly over the first 20 years to within 7080% of the uneroded productivity, further recovery was slow. Our evidence suggests that these man-modified forest soils, once eroded, may never regain the same potential for agricultural production under a pasture regime. Reduction in pasture production associated with erosion was most severe in summer and mid-winter when farmers have the highest risk of major feed deficits. Since native forest removal, the reduction due to erosion in potential pastoral productivity, integrated over whole hillslopes, has reached 18% on these hillslopes. An estimation of the extent to which improved farming technology has probably masked this reduction in potential productivity is discussed. On hillslopes where severe erosion occurs continually, farmers will be faced with increasing difficulty in maintaining animal production levels unless soil conservation and farm management strategies are designed to further mask the impacts of erosion and thereby prolong the viability of pastoral agriculture on such hill country. Keywords: soil slip erosion; pasture production; hillslope; potential pasture production; hill country pasture; erosion rate; farm management technology; physiographic areas; fertiliser level.
Capital and maintenance dressings of phosphate to hill pastures are considered as part of an overall curvilinear response to phosphate under conditions of phosphate accretion with the degree of response in the maintenance period dependant on the level of prior phosphate input. The response to phosphate in plant growth rate is governed by the concentration of phosphate in solution in the soil. The concentration of phosphate in solutions in equilibrium with hill soils of different histories of phosphate application has been measured and the results expressed in termsof a hyperbolic convergence derived from the concept of capital and maintenance dressings. A reduced response, in solution phosphate concentration, to phosphate application was observed in soils which had received lower prior applications and in soils from which current phosphate inputs had been withheld. It follows, that any reduction in phosphate input will cause, not only a lowered solution phosphate concentration, but also a lowering of the increase in phosphate concentration per incremental phosphate addition. This points to a possible lowering of the efficiency in the utilisation of applied phosphate when the input of phosphate to hill pastures is reduced. Keywords: solution phosphate, phosphate fertility, capital inputs, maintenance inputs, hill soils
The following is my personal view on what it is to be a European meat and wool farmer in the East Cape region. Many of my comments while applying in general to hill country in the whole of the Poverty Bay/East Coast region, are more specific to the area between Cape Runaway in the north, Gisborne City in the south, The Raukumara Range in the west, and the Coastline in the east. The total area is 830,000 hectares, and of this class 7 country (locally known as Category 2 and 3) makes up 45%. Class 8, or Category 4 land, has been excluded from the total area. I will refer to my own property as a typical example of this country, giving some of the pros and cons of farming this land.
Possible management strategies for areas of stubble left after hay had been harvested from a ryegrass/white clover pasture were studied in a trial on an irrigated Wakanui silt loam at Lincoln College, Canterbury. Following a hay crop cut in late December, the stubble was either trimmed to 2 cm (920 kg DM/ha) or left intact at 8-12 cm (2200 kg DM/ha) and spelled for either four or eight weeks. Subsequent regrowth herbage yield, botanical composition and digestibility were measured. The highest live herbage mass of 5380 kg DM/ha resulted from leaving the stubble intact and cutting the regrowth at four weekly intervals. The other treatments gave herbage masses from 4120 kg DM/ha to 4350 kg DM/ha but did not significantly differ from one another. However while 1220 and 1650 kg DM/ha of dead material was present in the “stubble intact” treatments, only 470 and 880 kg DM/ha occurred where the stubble was trimmed to 2 cm. The amount of dead material was the main determinant of overall digestibility, as the digestibility of the green herbage was similar (79-80%) for all treatments. As a result of differing amounts of dead material therefore, the herbage mass from trimmed stubble was from 4 to 10% higher in digestibility than that from the stubble left intact treatment. Clover proportion was high throughout the treatments, ranging from 50% in the long spelled treatment to 70% in the short spelled treatment. The results of this trial suggest that hay stubble should be left intact but regrowth should be closely defoliated after four weeks to maximise production and return the sward to a leafy state as quickly as possible.
#Hei Whatu Ngaro Ngro he Tangata Ko te Kainga Tu tonu ’ ‘People disappear from sight But the land remains for ever’ - Maori Proverb The subject ‘The Maori and his Land’ has many points of discussion which to the Maori are all very important. It would take up too much time to discuss or list all of them, instead I will take points of interest from articles already written for guidance to Local Government in treating Maori Land, and from another article from the Maori Dominion Council written to assist the Government in forming the new ‘Maori Bill’.
Since 1970 an increasing annual programme of aerial topdressing of forests has been carried out. In the past uneven spread of fertilisers has been a major problem, causing substantial waste of fertiliser and uneven tree growth. Since 1979 most of the areas that have been fertilised have been topdressed by a helicopter fitted with a Decca Flying Flagman electronic guidance system. Use of this system has resulted in much more accurate flying and more even spread of fertiliser enabling fertiliser application rates to be reduced. Further reductions are probable when fertiliser spreading rates and ground speeds can be monitored more accurately. Keywords: pine forest, fertiliser, aerial application, electronic guidance
Aspects of the above theme were investigated in 5 trials. Trial 1 compared the effects of high and low nutrition during pregnancy and lactation on ewe and iamb production. Ewe live weight was substantially affected by nutrition treatment during pregnancy but carry-over effects on live weight at weaning were small. Nutrition during lactation strongly affected both lamb and ewe weaning weights. Ewe and lamb losses were not affected by nutrition at any stage. The results implied that ewes can be quite severely restricted on pasture during pregnancy in order to save feed for the much more important lactation period. Trials 2 and 3 investigated the management of ewes fed at maintenance levels in mid-pregnancy. The treatments consisted of various grazing durations where the ewes were shifted from one pasture break to another after a specific grazing duration, as defined by their treatment. These treatments consisted of grazing durations ranging from 3 to 56 days. Liveweight differences occurred during the 56-dav trial period but at the end there was only 2.5kg difference between extreme treatments. This suggests that where ewes are on restricted feeding during pregnancy to conserve pasture reserves, grazing duration has little consistent impact on final ewe live weight and performance. However, for several reasons, a shorter duration (3-7 days) is preferred. Trials 4 and 5 compared several winter-spring management treatments. Ewes on a 35day (short) rotation during pregnancy versus those on a 70day (long) rotation had less pasture on their farmlet at lambing (930 V. 1030 kg/ha). As a consequence the short rotation ewes were 1.5 kg lighter at weaning. Their lambs ware 2.3 kg lighter. In another comparison, set-stocking ewes 4 weeks before lambing compared with at lambing disadvantaged the ewes and lambs by 2-3 kg at weaning. The ewes set-stocked 4 weeks before lambing had consumed most of their winter reserves by lambing. In Trial 5, rotational grazing after lambing until weaning versus set-stocking, disadvantaged the ewes and iambs by 4 and 3 kg respectively at weaning. This was probably because the rotation length of 21 days in the rotational group was too long. Management implications from these results are discussed. Keywords: winter, spring, nutrition, grazing management, ewes, lambs, pregnancy, lactation, grazing duration, rotational grazing, set stocking.